UN summit: What does it mean for tackling world poverty?

Chair of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC)

In September world leaders made the journey to the UN headquarters in New York. Statements were made; a much-contested declaration was painfully agreed. People get cynical about international summits. What should those concerned with ending global poverty make of this one?

For me, there are encouraging signs. True, the summit brought only a few new decisions on development, but it nonetheless set the seal of all world leaders on a commitment to eradicate poverty for reasons of both common humanity and common interest. Building on the Millennium Summit in 2000, and the Monterrey and Johannesburg conferences of 2002, it added in a series of high-level commitments made in the months leading up to the summit on increasing aid, making aid more effective and on debt relief. All countries affirmed their commitment to the Millennium Development Goals.

The UN summit reaffirmed several principles, including the message that the poor countries themselves must take primary responsibility for their own development. This means getting away from a dependency mentality on the side of poor countries, and a paternalist one on the side of the donors. Members also rightly stressed the need to give poor countries a better environment in which to earn their living. A real advance in the Doha round of trade negotiations remains a key test of this.

Concretely, the summit agreed that by next year countries should put in place plans consistent with reaching internationally-agreed objectives, and specifically the Millennium Development Goals. These Goals are a first attempt to subject the development process to the discipline of showing that it can improve people’s lives on a large scale within an agreed time frame. See pages 24 and 25.

This requires making progress not just at global level–as should be the case for the poverty goal, thanks to growth in Asia–but in individual countries, an altogether more challenging task. Scaled-up and more effective aid clearly has a role to play in support of countries’ own efforts. China’s commitment to a $10 billion programme is significant, but otherwise, new announcements on future aid levels were few. This was no surprise, since most donors had made announcements already. In fact, OECD experts estimate that, when all the year’s commitments are added up, headline aid from OECD countries alone could rise by $50 billion between 2004 and 2010, to nearly $130 billion. The UN Summit Outcome statement cites this estimate, which, if achieved, would be the largest increase in aid since the OECD Development Assistance Committee was founded in 1960. Proposals for so-called innovative financing have also progressed. Already, five European donors have established an International Financing Facility for Immunisation, and Chile has introduced an airline ticket levy for development, to be followed shortly by some EU members.

By historical standards these developments are remarkable. But will the commitments deliver needed support to a country developing a more ambitious strategy to reach the Goals? There are three reasons to hesitate.

First, donors may not deliver what they promised. It will be tough to get legislatures to vote, year after year, rapid increases in foreign aid. Second, if they do deliver, that aid may come in forms that do not help the hypothetical recipient. Funds may go, as they certainly will this year, to major emergencies, like the Asian tsunami, or to write off unserviced export credit debt, as in Iraq. The third reason for caution is that donors may be unwilling to offer sufficiently firm medium-term commitments at country level to convince governments or the IMF that it is safe to plan more ambitiously.

These issues will put donors under pressure to be more transparent. OECD now routinely provides updates on its website; currently, it shows estimates of what our members’ statements imply for spending in 2006 and 2010 (see Databank and references). This needs to be complemented by better forward-looking information on the composition and direction of aid spending.

Ultimately, of course, aid has to work effectively. The summit rightly welcomed the “Paris Declaration”, issued by a high-level forum last March where aid recipients and donors agreed to several steps, such as promoting genuine ownership by the recipient, aligning aid to local priorities and using local delivery systems which meet appropriate standards, harmonising donor practices to cut waste, a stronger focus on results, and monitoring progress jointly. The Declaration includes targets which, for the first time, will measure the effectiveness of donors’ aid delivery. The UN also received from the summit a mandate for the Economic and Social Council to review progress in development co-operation every two years.

It is easy to expect too much from summits. But this latest UN summit means that all parties engaged in development will be more strongly held to account, both at country level and internationally. We will perhaps look back on 2005 as the year when a joint enterprise to deal with global poverty became a political reality. Those journeys to New York may have been worth it after all.

The Millennium Development Goals in a nutshell

©OECD Observer No 251, September 2005

Economic data


Stay up-to-date with the latest news from the OECD by signing up for our e-newsletter :

Twitter feed

Suscribe now

<b>Subscribe now!</b>

To receive your exclusive print editions delivered to you directly

Online edition
Previous editions

Don't miss

  • Africa's cities at the forefront of progress: Africa is urbanising at a historically rapid pace coupled with an unprecedented demographic boom. By 2050, about 56% of Africans are expected to live in cities. This poses major policy challenges, but make no mistake: Africa’s cities and towns are engines of progress that, if harnessed correctly, can fuel the entire continent’s sustainable development.
  • “Nizip” refugee camp visit
    July 2016: OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría visits the “Nizip” refugee camp, situated between Gaziantep and the Turkish-Syrian border, accompanied by Turkey’s Deputy Prime Minister Mehmet Şimşek. The camp accommodates a small number of the 2.75 million Syrians currently registered in Turkey, mostly outside the camps. In his tour of the camp, Mr Gurría visits a school, speaks with refugees and gives a short interview.
  • OECD Observer i-Sheet Series: OECD Observer i-Sheets are smart contents pages on major issues and events. Use them to find current or recent articles, video, books and working papers. To browse on paper and read on line, or simply download.
  • Queen Maxima of the Netherlands gives a speech next to Mexico's President Enrique Pena Nieto (not pictured) during the International Forum of Financial Inclusion at the National Palace in Mexico City, Mexico June 21, 2016.
  • How sustainable is the ocean as a source of economic development? The Ocean Economy in 2030 examines the risks and uncertainties surrounding the future development of ocean industries, the innovations required in science and technology to support their progress, their potential contribution to green growth and some of the implications for ocean management.
  • OECD Environment Director Simon Upton presented a talk at Imperial College London on 21 April 2016. With the world awash in surplus oil and prices languishing around US$40 per barrel, how can governments step up efforts to transform the world’s energy systems in line with the Paris Agreement?
  • Happy 10th birthday to Twitter. This 2008 OECD Observer interview with Henry Copeland said you’d do well.
  • The OECD Gender Initiative examines existing barriers to gender equality in education, employment, and entrepreneurship. The gender portal monitors the progress made by governments to promote gender equality in both OECD and non-OECD countries and provides good practices based on analytical tools and reliable data.
  • Once migrants reach Europe, countries face integration challenge: OECD's Thomas Liebig speaks to NPR's Audie Cornish.

  • Message from the International Space Station to COP21

  • The carbon clock is ticking: OECD’s Gurría on CNBC

  • If we want to reach zero net emissions by the end of the century, we must align our policies for a low-carbon economy, put a price on carbon everywhere, spend less subsidising fossil fuels and invest more in clean energy. OECD at #COP21 – OECD statement for #COP21
  • They are green and local --It’s a new generation of entrepreneurs in Kenya with big dreams of sustainable energy and the drive to see their innovative technologies throughout Africa. blogs.worldbank.org
  • Pole to Paris Project
  • In order to face global warming, Asia needs at least $40 billion per year, derived from both the public and private sector. Read how to bridge the climate financing gap on the Asian Bank of Development's website.
  • How can cities fight climate change?
    Discover projects in Denmark, Canada, Australia, Japan and Mexico.
  • Climate: What's changed, what hasn't, what we can do about it.
    Lecture by OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría, hosted by the London School of Economics and Aviva Investors in association with ClimateWise, London, UK, 3 July 2015.
  • Is technological progress slowing down? Is it speeding up? At the OECD, we believe the research from our Future of ‪Productivity‬ project helps to resolve this paradox.
  • Is inequality bad for growth? That redistribution boosts economies is not established by the evidence says FT economics editor Chris Giles. Read more on www.ft.com.
  • Interested in a career in Paris at the OECD? The OECD is a major international organisation, with a mission to build better policies for better lives. With our hub based in one of the world's global cities and offices across continents, find out more at www.oecd.org/careers .

Most Popular Articles


What issue are you most concerned about in 2016?

Euro crisis
International conflict
Global warming

OECD Insights Blog

NOTE: All signed articles in the OECD Observer express the opinions of the authors
and do not necessarily represent the official views of OECD member countries.

All rights reserved. OECD 2016