Development: This time let's get it right!

Secretary-General of the OECD
Page 3 

This is the year of development! The Monterrey Summit on Financing for Development, the OECD Ministerial starting 15 May, the African Initiative of the G8 Summit and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg: all are largely focused on poverty reduction and effective development assistance.

This 10-point strategy could help them: 1. Create a framework for free and equitable international trade. 2. Promote mutually beneficial flows of foreign private investment. 3. Establish a better partnership, a clearer purpose and a greater coherence in development aid. 4. Increase the volume of aid. 5. Meet the problem of mounting debts. 6. Make aid administration more effective. 7. Redirect technical assistance. 8. Slow the growth of population. 9. Revitalise aid to education and research. 10. Strengthen the multilateral aid system.

I wish I could take credit for this solid strategy, but I cannot. It is drawn from the Report of the Commission on International Development entitled “Partners in Development” and was delivered to Robert S. McNamara, then president of the World Bank, in 1969! It sounds familiar because many of these ideas are present in today’s “new” development strategies, including the importance of NGOs and foreign direct investment. The report clearly remains valid. The same commission proposed that developed countries should increase their Official Development Assistance (ODA) to 0.7% of gross national income “in no case later than 1980”. By 2000 only five countries had attained the goal. There are no doubt examples of good aid programmes, but how effective have most of them really been? Not very, which is why development remains high on the global agenda.

In Sub-Saharan Africa, incomes per capita rose in the 1960s and 1970s, but have fallen back ever since to some US$80 above their 1960 level (at 1995 prices). Even counting population growth, this record is dismal. Where have we failed in our development strategies? Many development advocates today prescribe more aid, even doubling it to some US$100 billion. If we go down this path, we should make sure that this time we do it right. For that, we have to learn the lessons of history. One lesson is to avoid the trap of “conscience money”, which is how I would characterise much of our aid over the past 40 years. When I was minister in the Canadian government of Pierre Elliot Trudeau, the cabinet spent little time discussing the quality of official aid. Our main worry was how our effort, given the 0.7% target, compared to the performances of other countries. Trudeau was passionate about development, but when a nation’s aid contribution is measured against its GNP, and not the aid’s effectiveness, it becomes conscience money, not development finance. We might claim we have “done our part”, but have we? In 1988, I worked on a parliamentary committee examining Canada’s aid programmes, including in relation to national suppliers.

We published a comprehensive, but little-known report, appropriately called “For whose benefit?” This provocative and important question still needs to be answered. One of our recommendations was that Canada adopt a charter setting forth goals for our development assistance: to help the poorest countries and people in the world; to work always to strengthen capacities of developing countries to solve their own problems in harmony with the natural environment; to ensure that development priorities always prevail in setting objectives for the ODA programme. Well-intentioned declarations like these abound, but after a look at the record, I admit to a little cynicism. Nevertheless, there is good reason to believe a fresh start can work. Since 1969 a global economy has emerged where trade and investment can deliver immense benefits to the developing world. There are tremendous opportunities for business in developing countries, provided the conditions are right. ODA can be concentrated on achieving those conditions by nourishing human capital and institutions of good governance. This in turn will attract FDI at a pace unimagined 30 years ago.

I am convinced that the leaders of our international institutions sense a crucial opportunity before us. The Millennium Development Goals focus aid donors on building the human foundations for development. Jim Wolfensohn at the World Bank is promoting a comprehensive development framework for effective ODA, beginning with “good and clean governance”. Mark Malloch Brown, heading the UNDP, has demonstrated the leadership needed to move development to a new plateau. And the WTO’s success at Doha underlines the importance of making multilateral trade and investment work for development.

The title of the first chapter of the 1969 report was “A question of will”. I would exhort our political leaders to show that will, if they are serious about reducing poverty and promoting development. In that line, I would like to offer a provocative, even radical, suggestion: channel all your financial aid through multilateral development institutions, especially the World Bank and regional banks which have demonstrated capacity. The benefits would be many: substantial savings on national bureaucracies that administer bilateral aid; reduced burdens on developing countries of complying with complicated donor requirements; enhanced effectiveness of aid; reduced political pressure on governments to tie aid to satisfy national suppliers, etc. The Development Assistance Committee (DAC) could bring donor countries together to monitor the aid programmes of multilateral institutions and co-ordinate much-needed technical assistance. Another step would be for donor governments to appoint a senior minister for development, to demonstrate priority and make development happen. The UK is a good example.

More effective aid is in the interests of us all. We must put the days of “conscience money” behind us.

©OECD Observer No 231/232, May 2002




Economic data

E-Newsletter

Stay up-to-date with the latest news from the OECD by signing up for our e-newsletter :

Twitter feed

Suscribe now

<b>Subscribe now!</b>

To receive your exclusive print editions delivered to you directly


Online edition
Previous editions

Don't miss

  • “Nizip” refugee camp visit
    July 2016: OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría visits the “Nizip” refugee camp, situated between Gaziantep and the Turkish-Syrian border, accompanied by Turkey’s Deputy Prime Minister Mehmet Şimşek. The camp accommodates a small number of the 2.75 million Syrians currently registered in Turkey, mostly outside the camps. In his tour of the camp, Mr Gurría visits a school, speaks with refugees and gives a short interview.
  • OECD Observer i-Sheet Series: OECD Observer i-Sheets are smart contents pages on major issues and events. Use them to find current or recent articles, video, books and working papers. To browse on paper and read on line, or simply download.
  • Queen Maxima of the Netherlands gives a speech next to Mexico's President Enrique Pena Nieto (not pictured) during the International Forum of Financial Inclusion at the National Palace in Mexico City, Mexico June 21, 2016.
  • How sustainable is the ocean as a source of economic development? The Ocean Economy in 2030 examines the risks and uncertainties surrounding the future development of ocean industries, the innovations required in science and technology to support their progress, their potential contribution to green growth and some of the implications for ocean management.
  • OECD Environment Director Simon Upton presented a talk at Imperial College London on 21 April 2016. With the world awash in surplus oil and prices languishing around US$40 per barrel, how can governments step up efforts to transform the world’s energy systems in line with the Paris Agreement?
  • Happy 10th birthday to Twitter. This 2008 OECD Observer interview with Henry Copeland said you’d do well.
  • The OECD Gender Initiative examines existing barriers to gender equality in education, employment, and entrepreneurship. The gender portal monitors the progress made by governments to promote gender equality in both OECD and non-OECD countries and provides good practices based on analytical tools and reliable data.
  • Once migrants reach Europe, countries face integration challenge: OECD's Thomas Liebig speaks to NPR's Audie Cornish.

  • Message from the International Space Station to COP21

  • COP21 Will Get Agreement With Teeth: OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría on Bloomberg

  • The carbon clock is ticking: OECD’s Gurría on CNBC

  • If we want to reach zero net emissions by the end of the century, we must align our policies for a low-carbon economy, put a price on carbon everywhere, spend less subsidising fossil fuels and invest more in clean energy. OECD at #COP21 – OECD statement for #COP21
  • They are green and local --It’s a new generation of entrepreneurs in Kenya with big dreams of sustainable energy and the drive to see their innovative technologies throughout Africa. blogs.worldbank.org
  • Pole to Paris Project
  • In order to face global warming, Asia needs at least $40 billion per year, derived from both the public and private sector. Read how to bridge the climate financing gap on the Asian Bank of Development's website.
  • How can cities fight climate change?
    Discover projects in Denmark, Canada, Australia, Japan and Mexico.
  • Climate: What's changed, what hasn't, what we can do about it.
    Lecture by OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría, hosted by the London School of Economics and Aviva Investors in association with ClimateWise, London, UK, 3 July 2015.

  • Climate change: “We should not disagree when scientists tell us we have a window of opportunity–10-15 years–to turn this thing around” argues Senator Bernie Sanders.

  • In the long-run, the EU benefits from migration, says OECD Head of International Migration Division Jean-Christophe Dumont.
  • Is technological progress slowing down? Is it speeding up? At the OECD, we believe the research from our Future of ‪Productivity‬ project helps to resolve this paradox.
  • Is inequality bad for growth? That redistribution boosts economies is not established by the evidence says FT economics editor Chris Giles. Read more on www.ft.com.
  • Catherine Mann, OECD Chief Economist, explains on Bloomberg why "too much bank lending can slow economic growth".
  • Interested in a career in Paris at the OECD? The OECD is a major international organisation, with a mission to build better policies for better lives. With our hub based in one of the world's global cities and offices across continents, find out more at www.oecd.org/careers .

Most Popular Articles

Poll

What issue are you most concerned about in 2016?

Unemployment
Euro crisis
International conflict
Global warming
Other

OECD Insights Blog

NOTE: All signed articles in the OECD Observer express the opinions of the authors
and do not necessarily represent the official views of OECD member countries.

All rights reserved. OECD 2016