Security and the economy: Transportation

Trade and trade-offs
Economics Department
Page 12 

A medium-term economic fallout of 11 September is the effect on commerce, in particular, transportation. During the “new economy” boom it was perhaps forgotten that we live not in cyberspace but in a physical world where even goods ordered online still have to be packaged with real paper, processed and sent to their final destination. All of this means transport. But following the 11 September terrorist attacks, the air transportation system was shut off for four days and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey closed its operations for two days. The entire US transportation system was subject to severe disruptions that reverberated throughout the world.

The most severe disruption occurred at the US-Canada land border, virtually stopping some half a million vehicles from doing their normal trade, worth some US$1.4 billion a day. Long waits affected many businesses, in particular the automotive industry where just-in-time supply chains simply could not operate. Security measures were gradually eased and more personnel hired to bring the flow back to near normal. The signing in December 2001 of the US-Canada “smart border” initiative to facilitate trade through improved technology and better co-ordination has helped. But that was a land border: what of intercontinental trade?

Tighter security requirements and a series of surcharges also affect the cost of transporting goods by sea and air. Notification requirements, more frequent coast guard inspections and escorts: all have resulted in longer waiting times. The same for airfreight, with higher insurance premiums and war surcharges, particularly for transport of goods in sensitive geopolitical zones, also pushing up costs.

Despite all of this, most indices six months after the attacks showed little increase in shipping costs, while some declined. The 5-10% increase in maritime shipping rates was quickly reversed, but airfreight rates were some 10% up by the end of the year compared with before the attacks. Easing demand and sharply lower fuel costs should otherwise have led to a decline; according to the Air Transport Association, the average price of fuel used by the US airline industry has fallen from 79.6 cents in September 2001 and 60.1 cents in December. So, because of the attacks, underlying transportation costs may have risen.

Some still believe that US borders remain too porous and advocate more controls. The US Customs Service has recommended initiatives to increase the security of containers, which account for some 60% of the volume of world trade. This would involve significant capital investment so that cargo might go through more expeditious customs procedures – a sort of “fast lane”. Such requirements cost money and could affect delivery times. Yet affordable airfreight and lower overall shipping costs have helped to drive growth in recent decades, and several industries have been able to internationalise their supply chains as a result. They depend on speed and reliability of delivery and an efficient transportation system. Speed has allowed businesses to reduce inventories, for instance, and to raise productivity, not just in the United States, but in economies the world over. Making transport and shipping less affordable could affect growth in all countries, rich or poor.

Industry experts believe that post-attacks, the total cost of new security measures could amount to 1-3% of the goods’ value. These are not insignificant amounts, though even small differences in the cost of trading internationally, compared with selling in domestic markets, can have a large effect on trade patterns. The possibility that security measures can undermine trade flows should not be discarded.

What can be done, for security is clearly important. A co-operative approach is needed between the private and the public sector in both the design and implementation phases. Even though a trade-off between security and efficiency of border crossings cannot be fully avoided in the short-term, it might be overcome in the medium term. New security measures can be devised in ways that do not diminish the efficiency of merchandise border crossings, using risk-management to ensure that the most sensitive cases are prioritised.

The air cargo security regime introduced by the United Kingdom in the wake of the Lockerbie disaster of 1988 is a good example in this regard. “Fast lanes” for containers originating from secure ports appear at first glance to be an efficient solution, but could be discriminatory, especially against developing countries. International co-operation and consensus building would help make new security measures more efficient, while reducing their potentially negative impact on trade flows.

The 11 September attacks were tragic and shocking in the extreme. The fact that activity appears to be bouncing back is testimony to the resilience that the OECD area, and the US in particular, have developed over the years. Managing risks simply forms part of the test ahead.


• "The Economic Consequences of Terrorism", Economics Department Working Paper, forthcoming, OECD, 2002. 

©OECD Observer No 231/232, May 2002 

Economic data


Stay up-to-date with the latest news from the OECD by signing up for our e-newsletter :

Twitter feed

Suscribe now

<b>Subscribe now!</b>

To receive your exclusive paper editions delivered to you directly

Online edition
Previous editions

Don't miss

  • When someone asks me to describe an ideal girl, in my head, she is a person who is physically and mentally independent, brave to speak her mind, treated with respect just like she treats others, and inspiring to herself and others. But I know that the reality is still so much different. By Alda, 18, on International Day of the Girl. Read more.
  • Globalisation’s many benefits have been unequally shared, and public policy has struggled to keep up with a rapidly-shifting world. The OECD is working alongside governments and international organisations to help improve and harness the gains while tackling the root causes of inequality, and ensuring a level playing field globally. Please watch.
  • Read some of the insightful remarks made at OECD Forum 2017, held on 6-7 June. OECD Forum kick-started events with a focus on inclusive growth, digitalisation, and trust, under the overall theme of Bridging Divides.
  • Checking out the job situation with the OECD scoreboard of labour market performances: do you want to know how your country compares with neighbours and competitors on income levels or employment?
  • Trade is an important point of focus in today’s international economy. This video presents facts and statistics from OECD’s most recent publications on this topic.
  • How do the largest community of British expats living in Spain feel about Brexit? Britons living in Orihuela Costa, Alicante give their views.
  • Brexit is taking up Europe's energy and focus, according to OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría. Watch video.
  • OECD Chief Economist Catherine Mann and former Bank of England Governor Mervyn King discuss the economic merits of a US border adjustment tax and the outlook for US economic growth.
  • Africa's cities at the forefront of progress: Africa is urbanising at a historically rapid pace coupled with an unprecedented demographic boom. By 2050, about 56% of Africans are expected to live in cities. This poses major policy challenges, but make no mistake: Africa’s cities and towns are engines of progress that, if harnessed correctly, can fuel the entire continent’s sustainable development.
  • OECD Observer i-Sheet Series: OECD Observer i-Sheets are smart contents pages on major issues and events. Use them to find current or recent articles, video, books and working papers. To browse on paper and read on line, or simply download.
  • How sustainable is the ocean as a source of economic development? The Ocean Economy in 2030 examines the risks and uncertainties surrounding the future development of ocean industries, the innovations required in science and technology to support their progress, their potential contribution to green growth and some of the implications for ocean management.
  • The OECD Gender Initiative examines existing barriers to gender equality in education, employment, and entrepreneurship. The gender portal monitors the progress made by governments to promote gender equality in both OECD and non-OECD countries and provides good practices based on analytical tools and reliable data.
  • They are green and local --It’s a new generation of entrepreneurs in Kenya with big dreams of sustainable energy and the drive to see their innovative technologies throughout Africa.
  • Interested in a career in Paris at the OECD? The OECD is a major international organisation, with a mission to build better policies for better lives. With our hub based in one of the world's global cities and offices across continents, find out more at .

Most Popular Articles

OECD Insights Blog

NOTE: All signed articles in the OECD Observer express the opinions of the authors
and do not necessarily represent the official views of OECD member countries.

All rights reserved. OECD 2017