Taxes for innovation

The tax system can be a powerful policy instrument for spurring innovation. Here is how.

Anyone focusing on innovation realises its potential to transform economies. Innovation extends the bounds of our knowledge and our current capabilities, making firms more competitive and productive. These positive effects spill over to others in the economy. Innovation goes well beyond scientists with goggles and Bunsen burners. It includes the development of new products, novel techniques of production, fresh approaches to marketing and original methods of organisation in firms and industries. Adoption is also key, since a good idea that is not picked up by others cannot have a significant impact.

If firms have incentives to innovate from the market, is there a role for governments? In particular, can taxation help? Yes–not least because the tax system can be used to help overcome barriers to innovation by reducing the cost of undertaking innovative activities. Research and development (R&D) tax credits, which are in use in many OECD economies, provide tax benefits related to the costs of undertaking specific activities that aim to innovate. Canada, for example, offers a broad-based R&D tax credit of up to 35% for expenses towards experimental development, basic and applied research, and related supporting activities. Accelerated depreciation schemes for innovation-related capital and reduced labour taxes on scientists and researchers are other means. These tools can be used broadly or targeted to specific sectors and outcomes, such as renewable energy.

One way to boost the supply of innovation can be to lower the corporate tax rate for innovation-related profits, such as from royalties or the sale of patents. The Netherlands does this through its Innovation Box programme, where innovation-linked profits benefit from a tax rate of 5% in lieu of the general rate of up to 25.5%.

Tax measures specifically targeting innovation will generally increase innovation activities, particularly R&D activities, but there is risk of merely shifting R&D from other jurisdictions and subsidising R&D activities that would have occurred anyway, without the tax credit. Governments should avoid this danger, and also be aware of the administrative burdens for both firms and authorities innovation policies create. Moreover, they potentially open avenues for tax planning, including transferring intellectual property to low-tax jurisdictions.

Nor are tax measures to spur innovation without costs to public finances. The value of various R&D tax credits range from 0.1% of total tax revenue in the UK and Norway to over 0.9% in Canada. This means revenue foregone which, particularly in today’s budget-tight times, must generally be raised through other means, such as higher standard corporate tax rates or higher personal income tax rates. These in themselves could have adverse impacts on innovation activities by firms, not to mention economic activity more widely.

The issues affecting the supply of innovation also go beyond the existing corporate tax system. The relationship between the corporate tax system, the personal tax system and social security contributions can influence individuals’ decisions about whether to stay in dependent employment or seek out more entrepreneurial and innovative activities. Moreover, policymakers have to consider whether marginal personal tax rates are calibrated to account for highly-skilled workers who may more than proportionately drive innovation, but who are mobile and can be sensitive to tax rates.

The environment is one area where innovation is critical, affecting everything from local water pollution to national energy systems and global climate change. Meeting environmental challenges with today’s technology would be quite costly.



But using the tax system merely to encourage the supply of innovation for the environment simply will not be sufficient. If there is no cost to polluting, why would a firm adopt environmental innovations, however technologically advanced or cheap, that helps it to pollute less? Some firms may gain value in reducing their own pollution for investment-relations purposes, but in general, environmental innovation is different from other types of innovation: stimulating environmental innovations will see little uptake by polluters, unless matched by measures to stimulate demand for those innovations.

This stimulus must largely come from putting a price on environmentally harmful activities, akin to the prices of other goods and services in the economy. Without markets to do this naturally, there is a clear role for governments to step in and tax pollutants. Governments across the OECD are increasingly doing just this and not only to address climate change but to address wider environmental challenges. They levy taxes on smog-causing air pollutants, taxes on effluents to water sources and on waste to reduce load and boost recycling.

Taxes are generally considered the most effective environmental policy tool available to governments, alongside tradable permit systems, which have very similar properties. By placing a price on the pollutant, both approaches really can encourage firm-level action to reduce pollution and thereby stimulate innovation. Where well-designed environmental taxes have been levied, these taxes have been shown to be effective at inducing innovation; these taxes are generally levied directly on the harmful activity at an appropriate rate, with few exemptions.

In short, given the importance of innovation to sustainable growth and well-being, governments need to consider how to best optimise their approach. Skilfully harnessing the tax system offers a robust and indeed innovative way forward.

References

OECD (2010), Taxation, Innovation and the Environment, OECD, Paris (forthcoming).

OECD (2010), “Taxation and Innovation”, working paper, Paris (forthcoming).

©OECD Observer No. 279, May 2010




Economic data

GDP growth: +0.7% Q2 2017 year-on-year
Consumer price inflation: 2.2% Aug 2017 annual
Trade: +1.4% exp, +1.7% imp, Q2 2017
Unemployment: 5.8% Aug 2017
Last update: 23 Oct 2017

E-Newsletter

Stay up-to-date with the latest news from the OECD by signing up for our e-newsletter :

Twitter feed

Suscribe now

<b>Subscribe now!</b>

To receive your exclusive paper editions delivered to you directly


Online edition
Previous editions

Don't miss

  • The annual OECD Eurasia Week takes place in Almaty, Kazakhstan 23-25 October. Writing in The Astana Times, OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría urges Eurasia countries to stay the course on openness and international integration, which has brought prosperity but also disillusionment, notably regarding inequality. The OECD is working with this key region, and Mr Gurría urges Eurasia to focus on human capital and innovation to enhance productivity and people’s well-being. Read more.
  • When someone asks me to describe an ideal girl, in my head, she is a person who is physically and mentally independent, brave to speak her mind, treated with respect just like she treats others, and inspiring to herself and others. But I know that the reality is still so much different. By Alda, 18, on International Day of the Girl. Read more.
  • Globalisation’s many benefits have been unequally shared, and public policy has struggled to keep up with a rapidly-shifting world. The OECD is working alongside governments and international organisations to help improve and harness the gains while tackling the root causes of inequality, and ensuring a level playing field globally. Please watch.
  • Read some of the insightful remarks made at OECD Forum 2017, held on 6-7 June. OECD Forum kick-started events with a focus on inclusive growth, digitalisation, and trust, under the overall theme of Bridging Divides.
  • Checking out the job situation with the OECD scoreboard of labour market performances: do you want to know how your country compares with neighbours and competitors on income levels or employment?
  • Trade is an important point of focus in today’s international economy. This video presents facts and statistics from OECD’s most recent publications on this topic.
  • How do the largest community of British expats living in Spain feel about Brexit? Britons living in Orihuela Costa, Alicante give their views.
  • Brexit is taking up Europe's energy and focus, according to OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría. Watch video.
  • OECD Chief Economist Catherine Mann and former Bank of England Governor Mervyn King discuss the economic merits of a US border adjustment tax and the outlook for US economic growth.
  • Africa's cities at the forefront of progress: Africa is urbanising at a historically rapid pace coupled with an unprecedented demographic boom. By 2050, about 56% of Africans are expected to live in cities. This poses major policy challenges, but make no mistake: Africa’s cities and towns are engines of progress that, if harnessed correctly, can fuel the entire continent’s sustainable development.
  • OECD Observer i-Sheet Series: OECD Observer i-Sheets are smart contents pages on major issues and events. Use them to find current or recent articles, video, books and working papers. To browse on paper and read on line, or simply download.
  • How sustainable is the ocean as a source of economic development? The Ocean Economy in 2030 examines the risks and uncertainties surrounding the future development of ocean industries, the innovations required in science and technology to support their progress, their potential contribution to green growth and some of the implications for ocean management.
  • The OECD Gender Initiative examines existing barriers to gender equality in education, employment, and entrepreneurship. The gender portal monitors the progress made by governments to promote gender equality in both OECD and non-OECD countries and provides good practices based on analytical tools and reliable data.
  • They are green and local --It’s a new generation of entrepreneurs in Kenya with big dreams of sustainable energy and the drive to see their innovative technologies throughout Africa. blogs.worldbank.org
  • Interested in a career in Paris at the OECD? The OECD is a major international organisation, with a mission to build better policies for better lives. With our hub based in one of the world's global cities and offices across continents, find out more at www.oecd.org/careers .

Most Popular Articles

OECD Insights Blog

NOTE: All signed articles in the OECD Observer express the opinions of the authors
and do not necessarily represent the official views of OECD member countries.

All rights reserved. OECD 2017